“From Amadou Diallo to Mike Brown: Challenging the Institutionalized Profitization of Black Male Hatred in Law Enforcement, Media, and Extremist Black Feminism” by T. Hasan Johnson, Ph.D.

This shit is hard to write. Even as I read about the apparent suicide of one of my favorite actors and comedians, Robin Williams, I could only picture the recent killing of Mike Brown of Ferguson, MO. Robin Williams’ death impacted me because he was such a vibrant part of our media life for decades…but Brown moved me because I (or my son) could be him at any moment…and almost have been several times. The list of Black males compiled in this article below was staggeringly difficult to lay eyes on…and even harder to write, knowing that I could be on it at any age (see the list of Black males killed by police from 1999 to 2014 at the end of the article).

michael-brown2

Mike Brown – killed on Saturday, August 9, 2014

Robin Williams

I’ve been thrown on the hoods of many a police car before the age of 16 because I was dressed “too nice” (code for drug dealer), loitering (code for planning a robbery), or standing too close to a White woman (code for potential rapist). I’ve even had five cop cars screech to a halt on me at 15, with officers drawing guns, because I “looked like someone who robbed a Domino’s Pizza three cities over two weeks prior.” Shit. And now I have to prepare my son for such indignities….this innocent smiling boy who just wants to play…I have to tell him that because he’s taller than kids three years older than him, that he must be prepared to be a suspect at all times.

The killing of Mike Brown on Saturday, August 9, 2014, by a police officer has led to an uprising by the Black citizens of Ferguson, Missouri, because people understand the frustration I grew up with. Frustrated with limited options available to them, they have responded with fervor, and rightly so.

Ferguson Stats

According to an Internet-leaked statistical data sheet produced by the Ferguson Police Department in 2013, Black residents comprise 63% of the local population and are stopped, cited, searched, and arrested in higher rates than any other racial demographics. These statistics are mirrored in the experiences of Black people across the country, and are even at the core of the micro-traumatic experiences of hatred I experienced growing up.

Gaining from Institutionalized Hatred

This hatred doesn’t come out of nowhere. People profit from the institutionalized hatred of Black men, most particularly law enforcement, media, and the bourgeois intelligentsia. Police departments and private/public prisons benefit from the hatred of Black males. The militarization of the police since the 1960s has made it profitable to be in law enforcement. Private and public prisons not only benefit from grants and federal (taxpayer) dollars, they often trade on the stock market, meaning people literally invest in the warehousing and forced labor of Black males, many of whom have been provided such an atrocious education (with no viable job options) for so many decades that their imprisonment is damned-near inevitable.

The second group is the corporate-owned media conglomerate. Corporate news media, television shows, music and films often depict Black men as violent, murderous-phalluses and monsters for global profit…and we help them. Every so-called gangster rapper and Black television thug trying to make it in the industry inadvertently helps contribute to the idea that Black males are venomous killers, something our youth actually aspire to in far too many contexts. And every time we support these images it’s another dollar into the coffers of those who clearly do not have our best interest at heart. More to the point though, is that too many of us rely on this corporate monolith to provide us with accuracy and transparency. Not happening.

Michael Brown killer option 1Hacktivists submit killer’s name before Ferguson PD

Yet something is happening that is unprecedented for the global poor: social media activism. In Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and in poor neighborhoods throughout the United States, people are using their cell phones to connect to millions via  Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, email, and many other online resources.  These mobile platforms allow activists to transmit information often overlooked (or downright withheld) by corporate-owned media conglomerates. As shown above, the “hacktivist” (computer hacking activists) group Anonymous has been sending information from Ferguson, MO, on protest events, including pictures of incidents with police, and even the supposed (although questionable) name and face of the officer responsible for killing Brown, something corporate news media has yet to do. (It should be noted that at this point, details are still sketchy, as police reported the name of Brown’s killer to be Officer Darren Wilson as of August 15th). What is important to remember is that Ferguson is also a reminder of the importance of internet accessibility. People on the street alongside Anonymous are giving up-to-the-minute updates about police brutality in Ferguson, allowing people more in depth information than in decades past (see this video on the Black male killed in St. Louis after Brown). The use of social media as a tool for the disenfranchised is a crucial issue, and that war is still being waged. Don’t get it twisted…

Third is the bourgeois intelligentsia. Coming in all colors and income levels, this group benefits by distancing themselves from the poor–especially the Black poor. Among them are the snobs who pathologize Black males by reinforcing problematic statistics without context and passing it off as truth. Or Black “lift yourself up by your bootstraps” types who dismissively suggest that Black males are their own worst enemy because they: don’t go to church enough, don’t work hard enough, drink too much, smoke too much, can’t wear their clothes right, can’t walk or speak proper English, insert your reprimand here:___________. These people fail to grasp that the contexts within which Black folk struggle are not resolved by behaving by White mainstream standards. In fact, these can have absolutely NO impact on how we’re treated at all.White performances

A subset of this group are bourgeois, careerist, extremist Black feminists and ‘honorary female’ intellectuals (acceptable male-feminists who offer no critique of extremist feminism) who have now begun to respond to Black male victimization as something of which to be dismissive. Extremist refers to nigh-separatist Black Feminists who use sensationalist rhetoric such as “I don’t support Black males” or “no more male babies” (actual quotes) to mark their difference from more traditional Black Feminists and Africana Womanists. Exemplars of extremist Black Feminism are writers such as Kimberly Foster and Dr. Khadijah Costley White whose latest articles seek to recast Black Feminism, and only allow space for those who share their views–sans critique. But this group’s primary motivation is not just career advancement and or personal fame (members of this clique are frequently courted by MSNBC, CNN, and notable online news sources that serve to legitimize their extremism), it’s also to influence public policy and garner resources for select Black Feminist causes, and scapegoating Black males is an easy and efficient way to bond a group, define an agenda, garner support against Black male “savages,” and strategize a concerted attack against any that don’t share their limited worldview.

Frustrated by President Barack Obama’s perceived lack of support for Black women and girls via his My Brother’s Keeper Initiative, some of these extremist feminists have joined Black Feminists and taken to accusing Black males of absorbing the discourse on gender, while also not supporting the needs of Black women and girls. This assertion is ironic, considering that the notion of gender is overwhelmingly considered a feminine quotient (as male is not perceived as a gender replete with its own experiences and narratives outside of it being inherently oppressive).

In her piece, White states, “But I’m tired of black men…Who the hell mourns for us but us? When it comes to standing up for black women, empathizing with us, understanding our vulnerabilities, challenging sexism and misogyny in locker rooms and on the streets, too often black men are not only missing from our side—they’re battling against us.” Here, her notion of “us” constitutes a singular group of Black women who (regardless of class, status, sexuality, or health) struggle unappreciated, invisibly so…and are hated and disregarded by Black men. Yet Black men who do support have to become invisible in order to make such an argument tenable.  Side note: I’m sorry if my continuous murder irritates you, Dr. White… Trust me, if you’re tired of it, you drastically underestimate how tired we Black males are…

Part of the problem is that we rely too heavily on corporate media. Corporate-owned media doesn’t report on domestic abuse for either Black females or males, nor rates of disease (be it heart disease or HIV/AIDS), nor does it report on our missing and kidnapped. Greater direct access to details regarding more pertinent issues uniquely impacting Black females and males would definitely help clarify our issues and outline methods for support.

In response to White, whose piece was published just days after the brutal killing of Mike Brown, a commenter stated,

“Reniesha McBride was covered extensively by Black men and women on Black Talk Radio. Black men wrote articles and offered extensive analysis on the deaths of Rekia Boyd, Haidiya Pendleton, and Aiyana Stanley Jones. [For example], Dr. Tommy Curry’s YouTube videos which were on Sirius XM The Power and his shows on Marlon Smith, and Our Common Ground — all featured detailed analysis on these Black women, and he is a huge critic of Black feminism. So why would a critic of Black feminism still so vocally and visibly defend Black women given your analysis?

Other Black feminists with degrees in empirical fields have actually studied Black male attitudes and political behaviors over the last thirty years, and have shown that they are more progressive on Black feminist ideas than Black women. See Simien, Evelyn M. 2007. “A Black Gender Gap? Continuity and Change in Black Feminist Attitudes,” In African American Perspectives on Political Science, ed. Wilbur Rich. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. In short, you lie.”
-“Genre Du Noir” to Khadijah Costley White, August 11, 2014.

The trap of this argument is that it demands one tally Black men who are supportive, even though no number would truly suffice. It’s an unanswerable question. Another part of the problem is that Black Feminism is not articulated in a gender balanced manner. It is specifically a place for women, not for  boys, girls (still an emerging field), men, gay/bi/trans, or elderly male performances of myriad manifestations of maleness. Thus, Black male experiential narratives (experiences, rationale, material realities, and specific gender life challenges) are excluded from most gender studies courses, positioning women’s experiential narratives AS “Gender,” rather than as an aspect of a balanced-gender approach. Put another way, Black gender is solely conceptualized through a lens of Black femininity, and generates a one-sided perspective on gender that albeit guarantees extremist Black Feminist hostility. Such hostility (as Foster and White’s) might have been presupposed if Black male experiential narratives were included in the early gender studies curricular canon, promoting a mutual compassion between Black females and males rooted in an understanding of each others’ experiences, differences, similarities, social expectations, and historical trajectories. A gender-balanced approach might also give men the vocabulary they need to articulate their gender experiences and address questions/challenges by feminists to males about how gender is performed and understood.

A gender balanced approach would also help males and females re-evaluate a number of approaches to a wide number of issues, such as the way we understand relationships and abuse. According to the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics in its November 2013 report entitled, “Intimate Partner Violence: Special Report of Victimization, 1993–2011” by Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., men are generally hit more with objects, weapons, etc., experience violence at higher rates from intimate partners than from strangers, and attacks from intimate partners declined much more slowly for men than for women (including both female and male intimate partners/spouses). See Index 1 below.

Also, in intimate relationships, extremely high percentages of Black males report experiencing emotional and psychological abuse (such rates increased with diminished income). In some studies, up to 50% of Black males experienced sexual coercion and rape from an intimate partner. Some in a “sample had been beaten up (16.9%) and choked (18.5%) by a girlfriend. In addition, an alarming number had been threatened with a knife or gun (25%) or actually assaulted with a weapon (13%; West & Rose, 2000).” The rates of psychological, sexual, and physical dating violence perpetrated against Black men are unacceptably high. In fact, Rouse (1988) noted that when compared to White and Latino male undergraduates, ‘among dating students in this sample, the highest percentages for partner’s use of physical force and consequences experienced as a result were for Black men’” (p. 318). Further study revealed that, “Black women reported using more violence against boyfriends than Black men reported using against their girlfriends (Clark et al., 1994; DeMaris, 1990).” (see Index 2 below). I suspect that rates of abuse against males is likely much higher than even these statistics suggest, as most men will not report their experiences of abuse from women, and will likely not even perceive it as abuse at all. This is because we’ve learned that abuse only happens to women. Again, this is why a gender-balanced training would be useful to girls who abuse and boys who can’t define abuse. (See my blog article, “Was Stephen A. Smith Right?“)

This one-sided approach to gender by extremist Black Feminists makes questionable / problematic Black female behavior invisible, and when raised for discussion, it is re-articulated as Black males’ attempts to escape, deny, or re-inscribe intellectual violence against women. Thus, at no point can they (extremist Black Feminists) be criticized…not even by other feminists. (see debates regarding #WomenAgainstFeminism)

As Greg Thomas observes (2007),

“Histories of gender and slavery focus overwhelmingly on women as if gender and women are coextensive and men have no gender. This observation points to a problem within the conceptualization of sex and gender across academic disciplines… For there is a structural neglect of manhood in gender and womanhood is misunderstood to be synonymous with gender itself, then the approach signifies an extension rather than an analysis of gender ideology, which traditionally inscribes ‘woman’ as being gendered and ‘man’ as being generic and beyond gender.”

This suggests that Black masculinity needs to be considered as a gender, with its own unique perspectives and experiential narratives that should not be measured against a long-established female standard of gender analyses.

The other problem with this extremist Black Feminism is that it is incredibly perceptive–as long as the target is Black men, but not so much when Black female’s behavior is called into question. Part of this discrepancy is that extremist Black Feminists point out the gender privileges Black males possess, but are often unwilling to accept their own. As one prominent extremist Black feminist told me in a conversation, “female privilege doesn’t exist.” This silences many Black men who don’t formally study gender because they don’t have the gender vocabulary, but they still know something isn’t right. Also, such men rightfully know it does not account for the differences in our experiences, particularly with racism. As White and Foster infer, they don’t believe Black men support Black women, especially in regard to harassment and injustice. We must remember that for better or worse, mainstream media does not generally report on Black women, and this is not something Black folk, male or female, control.

Black Feminism

Black Men vs. Black Women?

To the extent that there are rifts that effect Black men supporting Black women, I believe there are some unspoken concerns that remain unresolved. For instance, some of the most recent high profile cases for Black women have had staggeringly different outcomes than those of Black men in similar circumstances. For most Black men, if something doesn’t end in utter tragedy, it’s hard to emote. We are desensitized to violence, and have been for years. As Black men would only say in the barbershop: “…but she’s still alive!” In other words, although Black men do support Black women, it’s hard to completely empathize when the results seem so different from the reality Black males know is so readily meted out to us.

Rachel Jeantel and TrayvonRachel Jeantel and Trayvon Martin

Rachel Jeantel, the last person to speak with Trayvon Martin, was defended by many Black folk, Black Feminists in particular, because of the way she was perceived, discussed, and interpreted after her court appearance—and rightly so. But extremist Black Feminists used Jeantel and exploited Martin in order to center women’s experiences (and detract from men’s). Black men watched the gender discussion (see Cornell University’s panel discussion) and said silently to themselves: “but, she’s alive…and Trayvon is dead!”

Shanesha Taylor Meme

Homeless Arizona mother Shanesa Taylor was arrested for leaving her children in her SUV while going to a job interview because she lacked childcare. Memes highlighted how unjust her arrest was while her white counterpart received probation…at least until Taylor got probation herself. Not only was she vindicated and the case was dismissed, but donors sent her an excess of $100,000. The tear-filled picture above elicited response from people all over the Internet, triggering in us a sense of empathy for her situation. Black males don’t generally elicit sympathy from the criminal justice system when suspected of a crime, and a Black male who leaves his kids in a car is more likely to get prison time than six-figure donations.

rekia-boyd-1Rekia Boyd

The 2012 police shooting of Rekia Boyd ended with her killer, police officer Dante Servin, being convicted and incarcerated, while her family received over $4.5 million in a wrongful death lawsuit. Let me be clear, her life is worth more than any amount of money, but the resolution to this case, again, differs from Black males slain unjustly. Her killer was sentenced for her murder. Yet ironically, her death was an accident; the police officer was actually trying to kill an unarmed Black man named Antonio Cross. Ever heard of Cross? Naaa, I didn’t think so… Additionally, many of the Black males on the list below had killers who were not even arrested.

uptown-renisha-mcbride-jonathan-ferrellRenisha McBride and Jonathan Ferrell

Renisha McBride was fatally shot in the head while seeking help after a car accident in 2013. In August of 2014, her killer was charged and sentenced to 17 years, the maximum sentence for second-degree manslaughter. This case was interesting because extremist Black Feminists rightly protested the desecration of her image during the court case, but would not admit to the type of racialized gender bias taking place. McBride was being “Black masculinized.” Accusations of her marijuana and alcohol consumption were ways of making her behavior more akin to a ‘dangerous Black male’ rather than a ‘harmless Black female.’ The more she could be portrayed as having qualities typically attributed by mainstream media to Black males, the easier it was for the media to initially portray her killer’s response as justifiable homicide. The picture above helped feminize her so that she would be seen not only as a human being, but as a beautiful, young, harmless Black woman, and not a dangerous Black “male-like” entity. (Unlike many Black males, Jonathan Ferrell’s killer did eventually get an 11-year sentence, but only after having a North Carolina grand jury refused to sentence him, and the court secured a new jury. Ferrell had a very similar tragic end, looking for help after a car accident and being shot 10 times by a police officer.)

ersula-ore3 1Professor Ersula Ore

In contrast, Arizona State University Professor Ersula Ore was alleged to have “passively resisted” arrest (she kicked the officer in the shins). After which, he physically took her to the ground. However, Ferrell was shot 10 times at a distance, just after the officer told him to put his hands in the air. Could he have even gotten close enough to kick the officer? As of a few days ago, Ore’s sentence was 9 months of probation.

pregnant womanRosan Miller

The New York Police Department allegedly choked one 27-year old pregnant Black woman, Rosan Miller, a couple of weeks ago for grilling in front of her house. This came a few weeks after the NYPD killed Eric Gardner using the same technique. Thankfully, Rosan is alive and thoroughly pissed—and rightly so. But again…Eric is dead.

marissarally2012Marissa Alexander

Marissa Alexander of Jacksonville, FL, was defending herself against her allegedly abusive husband when she fired warning shots inside her home in August 2010. She told police it was to escape a brutal beating by her husband, against whom she had already taken out a protective order. She was unjustly sentenced to 20 years, because she wouldn’t accept a deal that required her to plead guilty. The jury in the case returned a guilty verdict in less than 15 minutes. Clearly, Alexander’s Black femininity didn’t prevent her from being unjustly arrested and sentenced under Florida’s “10-20-life” law, enacted in 1999, which mandates a 20-year sentence for use of a gun during the commission of certain crimes. She was not seen as a victim of her husband and was villainized because she went back into the house during the dispute with the gun she got out of her car. Since her arrest, Alexander has amassed a large following of supporters. [UPDATE: “JACKSONVILLE, Fla., Jan 27, 2015 (Reuters) – A Florida woman who says she fired a warning shot at her abusive husband was released from a Jacksonville jail on Tuesday under a plea deal that capped her sentence to the three years she had already served.”http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/27/marissa-alexander-released-jail-warning-shot_n_6558814.html?utm_hp_ref=black-voices]

However, were she a Black male, would she have been able to survive the police officers’ initial arrest? Do you think a police officer called to resolve a family argument wouldn’t kill him, especially if it’s been reported that a Black male brandished a gun? Furthermore, if a Black male used a gun to deter an abusive wife, would he be arrested or killed outright upon arrest (considering how many Black males on the list below were killed merely at the suspicion of having a weapon)? Would he be framed a hero? In other words, Alexander’s Black femininity did not save her from injustice, but it may have saved her life. It is likely that were she White, she may not have been arrested at all (as with many of the Black women listed above), but that does not mean her femininity had no power or privilege.

So Where Does This Leave Us?

Let me say emphatically: I am personally elated that most of these sisters are either alive or received justice in the form of exoneration and financial support. Yet for most of these women, they’re alive…and with life comes new possibilities. Death, on the other hand, is final.

I am not advocating that the Black females above should be dismissed because they lived or their killers received “justice.” I do, however, challenge the very purposeful, hateful, and malicious agenda by extremist Black Feminists who dismiss the tragic murders of Black males in order to gain political notoriety and career advancement. Anti-Black-community-sensationalism distances them from those critical of their brand of feminism—particularly Black males.

Elated

I don’t believe that Black female’s pain should be ignored. I just contend that some Black males are unclear about contextualizing differing perceptions of Black men and women, and how those differences translate to incarceration rates, life experiences, and unjustified deaths. I further argue that the study of Black males by Black males must be rooted in analyses that include race and gender, and that advocacy for Black males should not, in and of itself, be labeled as sexist. After all, according to a Justice Department study covering 20+ years of murders, men are killed at more than 3 times the rate of women. For example, out of All Victims of Murder and Non-Negligent Manslaughter from 1976-1996” (a total of 446,370 cases),

  • Male Victims 340,687 (76.3%)
  • Female Victims 105,175 (23.7%)

(See Lawrence A. Greenfeld, Michael R. Rand, et al, “Factbook: Violence By Intimates Analysis Of Data On Crimes By Current Or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends,” in Office Of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department Of Justice, March 1998).

Such glaring differences require activism, not dismissal…as Black people are killed every 28 hours in the U.S. by police according to recent study by the Malcolm X Grassroots Movement, and 93% of those killed were Black men (and this does not account for death by drug overdoses, suicide, disease, vigilante hate crimes, and Black-on-Black violence). To get a sense of the scope of this, see the list of Black males killed by police from 1999 to 2014 below.

I believe Black men should (and I argue that many of us already consistently do) support anyone in the Black community who has been unjustly accosted, harassed, or God forbid, killed. I just believe it useful to articulate men’s thought processes regarding supporting Black women, especially in light of the current uprisings in Ferguson, MO.

Ferguson Uprising

This is not to argue that Black women do not experience traumatic injustice, even to the extent of death. It is not to argue that Black women are not unjustly treated by the system we all live in, in America. And it’s not to say that Black women’s problems have no relevance. Such assertions would be idiotic. It is to say, however, that Black men do support Black women, and do care about their life experiences, but often do not know how to discuss our experiential differences. Female friends, lovers, wives, daughters, sisters, mothers, aunts, and grandmothers, and Black females at large are loved by Black males of all ages, and we do advocate for sisters. But in terms of the differences in our life options and experiences, we do experience different realities, both glorious and traumatic in ways distinct to each. And to the extent that our mutual support and perceived abandonment includes and excludes each other at shifting points (often, Black males don’t feel understood by the females in their lives…uuumm Hip-Hop’s masculine-bonding culture anyone?), it is important we not scapegoat one another. The dismissal of Black women’s life experiences begins at an institutional level and proliferates through our media; as does the silencing of their voices. Black men are not solely responsible for such things, nor are they the source of all Black women’s difficulties, and likewise the opposite.

Michael Brown ParentsLesley McSpadden, left, is comforted by her husband, Louis Head
(parents of Michael Brown) 

(Photo: Huy Mach, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, via AP)

Despite this, extremist Black Feminists have argued that Black male tragedy makes Black female lives invisible. However, I contend that the outcomes of Black female tragedy (in regard to state-sanctioned injustice) are often more humane, mainly because their femininity (albeit barely) allows them to be seen as human because they are female (and thus deserving of mercy) in the eyes of the populace. Even when sisters receive justice, extremist Black Feminists will not comment on the differences between these outcomes, but will instead choose to recommit to their focus on scapegoating Black males.

Works such as Foster and White’s are irresponsible, and abuse the trust people extend to Black intellectuals looking to make sense of the complex realities within which we live. We must always guard against our personal frustrations shaping our professional obligations when serving as scholars and thinkers. Targeting Black males as the scapegoats for Black female pain is not the answer. It’s not the answer for most of us, and not the answer for those struggling in Ferguson. They’re not interested in dismissing the lives of Black males or females, especially when they see who’s killing their young. If you have any illusions about the nature of the most impactful institutional challenges facing Black males and females, glance at the list below…

A Cursory List of Slain Black Men by Police from 1999-2014 (by Year and First Name):

“Destroying the Black male body, murdering the Black life that demanded to be more than the petrified phantasm of the White imagination extinguishes the idea in the Black human that they cannot exist in the White supremacist world. Killing Black men who dare to speak against–and live beyond–their place erases them from the world, making them an example and leaving only their dead, melanated corpse as a deterrent against future revolts against white types of knowledge.”
Dr. Tommy Curry, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Texas A&M.

This list is NOT exhaustive. It comprises only a few pages out of over 700,000 pages listed on Google.

1999

Amadou Diallo (1999 – New York)

2000

Patrick Dorismond 26 (2000 – New York)

2003

Orlando Barlow 28 (2003 – Las Vegas, NV)

Osmaune Zongo 43 (2003 – New York)

2004

Timothy Stansbury, Jr. 19 (2004 – New York)
2005

Aaron Cambell 25 (2005 – Portland, OR)

James Brissette and Ronald Madison 40 and 17 (2005 – New Orleans, LA)

Travaras McGill 16 (2005 – Sanford, FL)

Wendell Allen 20 (2005 – New Orleans, LA)

2006

Sean Bell 23 (2006 – New York)
2012

Aaron Hunter

Aaron Nathaniel McCoy

Aaron Palmer

Abdelle Jean St. Ange

Ahmede Jabber Bradley

Alan Blueford

Albert Jermaine Payton

Alonzo Ashley 29 (2011 – Denver, CO)

Alton Davis Jr.

Andrais Darnell Smith

Andre Jones

Andre Oliver

Angelo Clark 31 (2012 – Little, AK)

Anthony A. Hammond Jr.

Anthony Anderson

Anthony Mansfield

Anthony Paul Gilmore Jr.

Anton Barrett Sr.

Anton Butler

Antonio Hernandez

Antwain White

Archie Lee Chambers Jr.

Arnold Dante Price

Atwain White 17 (2012 – Brooklyn, NY)

Bartholomew Williams

Bennedy Abreu

Bo Morrison 20 (2012 – West Bend, WI)

Bobby Clark

Bobby Merrill Jr.

Bobby Mister Lowe

Bobby Moore Jr.

Brandon James Dunbar

Brandon Jones

Brandon Payne

Burrell Ramsey Wright

Calvin Lee Robinson

Calvin Wallace

Carl Anthony Tatum

Carleton J. Wallace

Carlos Joseph Charles

Carnell Gaines Jr.

Charles Livingston III

Chavis Carter

Chester Joseph Crestwell

Christian Freeman

Christopher Brown

Christopher Calhoun

Christopher Jerome Thomas

Christopher Kissane 26 (2012 – Brooklyn, NY)

Christopher McGowen

Christopher Middleton

Cjavar “DeeJay” Galmon

Clinton Hightower

Corey Booker

Corey Hayes

Corey Kaufman

Corey Lamar Jones

Cory McGinnes

Craig Ruise Jr.

Dakota Bright

Dallas Antwan Conner

Damion Lavent Street

Damon “Poppo” Abraham

Dane Garrett Scott Jr.

Daniel Exum

Danny David Ferguson

Dante Price 25 (2012 – Dayton, OH)

Darnell C. Robinson

Darrius Kennedy

Darrius Simmons

Darryl Berry

Darryl L. Atkins

Darryl Wiggins

Davano Pouncil

David Foreman

David Nathan Alexis

David Strong

David Terrill Malloy

David Winston

Davinian Williams

Dawayne Lavar Grant Sr.

DeEric Bailey

DeJuan Eaton

Demetrius Bennett

Denny Gonzales

Derek Mack

Derick D. Alexander

Derrick Ambrose Jr.

Derrick Flynn

Derrick Gaines

Derrick Suttle

Deshone Lamar Travis

Devante Bowman

Devante Brown

Dewayne Bailey

Dewayne North

Divonte Young

Donald Johnson 21 (2012 – New Orleans, LA)

Donnie Ray Plater

Dontez Oneal

Duane Brown 26 (2012 – New York)

Dwayne Brown

Earl D. Brown

Eddie Jones III

Edgar Owens

Edward Clark

Edward Irons

Elijah Haggerty

Elip Cheatham

Eric “Ricky” Bradley

Erik Turnbull

Ernest Hoskins Jr.

Ervin Jefferson 18 (2012 – Atlanta, GA)

Forenzo Tyre Walker

Fredderick Wayne Grayson

Freddie Burton Jr.

George Wells

Gregory Martinez Hughes

Gustavo Pedro Moreno

Harlem Harold Lewis II

Harold Joseph Collins

Hassan Pratt

Henry Frankie Lee Sr.

Hernandez L. Dowdy

Ian May

Irvian Adam Singleton Jr.

Israel “Izzy” Andino

Ivan Carl Hardemon

Ja’Ray J. Coster

Jalen Lathon Ricks

Jamaal Moore

James Harper

James Henry Cooke Madave

James Lamont Green

Ja’Quares Cortez Walker

Jason Aaron Pearce

Javon J. Neal

Jermane Lucas

Jermie McCraven

Jerome K. Corley

Jersey Green 37 (2012 – Aurora, IL)

Jeterious Moore

Jimmy Lee Matthews

John Pickston

John Robert Husband III

Johnnie Kamahi Warren 43 (2012 – Dotham, AL)

Johnny Wright

Jonte Loven House

Jordan Davis 17 (2012 – Brevard County, FL)

Josiah Antwan Tate

Juan Montrice Lawrence

Justin Sipp 20 (2012 – New Orleans, LA)

Justin Thompson

Keith Jamarcus Durham

Kenrec Lavelle McDade 19 (2012 – Pasadena, CA)

Kendrick McDaniel

Kenneth Smith

Kenny Releford

Kenyado Newsuan

Keontae Amerson

Kerwin Harris

Kevin Bernard Hunter

Kevin Bolden

Kevin Culp

Kevin McCann

Kevin S. Boozer

Kevin Willingham

Keyeon Johnson

Kijuan Byrd

Labaran Idhaoji

Lamont Burgess

Lamont Harmon

Lamont Khiry Haslip

Laporsha R. Watson

Lawrence Wallace Jr.

Lee Dell Thomas Jr.

Lenny Ellis

Logan Bell

Lorenzo Davis Jr.

Luther Brown Jr.

Malcolm Gracia

Malcolm Smith

Manuel Loggins 31 (2012 – San Clemente, CA)

Marcus Bell

Marcus Neloms III

Mario “Papaya” Romero

Mark Anthony Brooks

Mark Eric Henderson

Mark Lewis Salazar

Marquez Smart 23 (2012 – Wichita, KS)

Marquise Sampson

Matthew Henderson

Maurice Holloman

Melissa Williams

Melvin Dwayne Fletcher Jr.

Melvin Lawhorn 26 (2012 – Kershaw County, SC)

Michael “O’Head” Randolph

Michael Anthony Hayes II

Michael Deangelo Laney

Michael Dwayne Bailey

Michael Lembhard 22 (2012 – Newburgh, NY)

Michael McBride

Michael Moore

Michael Perryman

Michael Smith

Michael Wilson

Michael Wudtee

Milton Hall

Mohamed Bah

Mohammed Ibraham Shah

Monae Turnage

Monta Cordell Fizer

Montrez Javon Virgil

Myron Pollard

Name not released, 11/10/12

Name not released, 11/22/12

Name not released, 3/31/12

Name not released, 6/21/12

Name Withheld 16 (2012 – San Leandro, CA)

Nehemiah Dillard 29 (2012 – Gainesville, FL)

Nicholas Samuel Underwood

Noahcell Bagley

O’Patrick Fitzgerald Humphrey

Omarri Williams

Oscar Grant 22 (2009 – Oakland, CA)

Parish Laconley Powell

Patrick Oneal Spurlock

Percy Holland

Philip O. Coleman

Phillip Brown

Phillip K. Johnson

Prince Jamel Gavin

Prince James

Ramarley Graham 18 (2012 – New York)

Randall Kyle Wilcox

Rasheen Rahan Wright

Raymond Allen 34 (2012 – Galveston, TX)

Raymond Lee Brown

Reynaldo Cuevas

Richard Julius Larrance

Richard LaTour

Ricky McFadden

Robert Dumas, Jr. 42 (2012 – Cleveland, OH)

Robert Earl Fletcher

Robert Henning

Robert Montgomery III

Robert Williams

Robin Leander Howard

Roderick Hamilton

Rodney Moore

Roman Lee Drake

Ronald Herrera

Ronald Lovell Wright

Ronald Melvin Cox

Rudolph Bell

Rudolph Wyatt

Rudy Eugene

Sammie “Junebug” Davis Jr.

Samuel Rivers

Sean D’Angelo Smith

Sean Egana

Sheron Jackson 21 (2012 – Baltimore, MD)

Stephon Watts 15 (2012 – Calumet City, IL)

Steven Eugene Washington 27 (2010 – Los Angeles, CA)

Tamon Robinson

Tederalle Satchell

Tendai Nhekairo (Zimbabwean) 18(?) (2012 – Atlanta, GA)

Terence Ellis

Terrance Lamar “Tank” Abrams

Thomas Austin Jr.

Thomas C. McMullen

Thomas Destin

Timmie Williams

Timothy Clark Merrill

Timothy Collins

Timothy Russell (2012 – Cleveland, OH)

Tony Louis Francis

Tony Taylor

Tracy Woodfork

Trayvon Martin 17 (2012 – Sanford, CA)

Tremayne Marshawn Williams

Trevion Davis

Tyjuan Hill

Tyre Leone

Victor Duffy Jr.

Victor Terrance Gaddy

Vidal Cornelius Calloway

Victor Steen 17 (2009 – Pensacola, FL)

Walwyn “Smiley” Jackson

Wendell Allen 20 (2012 – New Orleans, LA)

William ”Curley” Baynes

William Allen

William Banks

William C. Billy Gibbs III

William Howlett

William Miller

William Sudduth

Xavier McCord

2013

Kimani Gray 16 (2013 – New York)

2014

Armand Bennett, 26 (2014 – New Orleans, LA)

Dante Parker, 36 (Victorville, CA)

Denzel “Jaba” Curnell 19 (2014 – South Carolina)

Ezell Ford 25 (2014 – Los Angeles, CA)

Eric Gardner 43 (2014 – New York)

John Crawford 22 (2014 – Beavercreek, OH)

Mike Brown 18 (2014 – Ferguson, MO)

Sources and Indexes:

Names gathered from multiple sources:

 Index 1:

  • From 1994 to 2011, the rate of serious intimate partner violence declined 72% for females and 64% for males. „„
  • In 2002–11, a larger percentage of male (27%) than female (18%) intimate partner victimizations involved a weapon.
  • In 2002–11, 5% of females and 19% of males were hit by an object their intimate partner held or threw at them.
  • In 2002–11, about 18% of female and 27% of male intimate partner violence victimizations involved an offender with a weapon.
  • A larger percentage of males experienced serious violence when victimized by an intimate (39%) than by a non-intimate partner (32%).
  • A larger percentage of males were physically attacked when victimized by an intimate partner (65%) than by a non-intimate partner offender (40%).
  • A larger percentage of males were threatened prior to a victimization by an non-intimate partner (39%) than a intimate (31%).
  • A larger percentage of males were injured when the offender was an intimate (44%) than a non-intimate partner (22%).
  • A similar percentage of males sought treatment for injuries when victimized by an intimate (11%) or a non-intimate partner (10%).
  • From 1976-1985, Black men were more likely than Black women to be a victim of domestic homicide. (“Fact Sheet: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in the African American Community,” Institute on Domestic Violence in the African American Community, University of Minnesota.)

Index 2:

  • “64% of Black male middle school and high school students had been emotionally abused by a girlfriend” (Holt & Espelage, 2005).
  • “91% of Black male undergraduates reported that their girlfriends had insulted or cursed at them, refused to talk to them, or said something to spite them” (Clark, Beckett, Wells, & Dungee-Anderson, 1994).
  • “Similarly high rates were found among economically disadvantaged Black youth (ages 16 to 24) who were enrolled in Job Corps, a government-sponsored education and training program. A substantial number (48%) of these Black men had been degraded and 67% had been either insulted or called names by a girlfriend” (West & Rose, 2000).
  • “Typically, researchers and community members have neglected the sexual victimization of boys and men, but sexual coercion has been documented among Black men. For instance, 50% of Black male college students in Rouse’s (1988) sample had been pressured to have sex or had partners become angry if they refused sexual activity. More serious forms of sexual violence also were reported.”
  • “Using a single-item measure, several scholars found comparable rates of victimization (7.2%) among Black male high school students in Minnesota (Ackard & Neumark-Sztainer, 2002) and in nationally representative high school samples. For example, 6.3% of young Black men had been beaten up by the person they had dated in the 30 days prior to the survey (Valois, Oeltmann, Waller, & Hussey, 1999) and 7.9% indicated that a girlfriend had threatened to or had actually physically hurt them (Ackard et al., 2003). Investigators found similar amounts of victimization among Black male high school students: 13.5% (Eaton, Davis, Barrios, Brener, & Noonan, 2007) and 10.6% (Howard & Wang, 2003) responded “yes” when asked “During the past 12 months, did your girlfriend ever hit, slap, or physically hurt you on purpose?”
  • “For example, when researchers utilized the Victimization Dating Relationship Scale, slightly more than one half (53%) of a sample of Black male middle and high school students reported dating violence victimization (Holt & Espelage, 2005). However, most researchers have used the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) or a modified version of this scale, which categorized intimate partner violence as minor (e.g., threw objects, pushed, grabbed, shoved, and slapped) or severe (e.g., choked, beat up, used weapons; Straus, 1979).
    Based on the CTS, Clark and colleagues (1994) discovered that 41% of the Black college men in their sample had been physically abused by a partner at least once. The aggression most often took the form of pushing, slapping, or hitting. Similarly, 35% of young (19- to 20-year-old) Black men in a low-income community sample had been hit, punched, or slapped (16.3%); pushed, grabbed, or shoved (13.5%); and scratched or bit (10.4%) by a partner (O’Donnell et al., 2006). However, more severe acts were found when the CTS was administered to Job Corps participants. More specifically, the young men in this sample had been beaten up (16.9%) and choked (18.5%) by a girlfriend. In addition, an alarming number had been threatened with a knife or gun (25%) or actually assaulted with a weapon (13%; West & Rose, 2000).”
  • The rates of psychological, sexual, and physical dating violence perpetrated against Black men are unacceptably high. In fact, Rouse (1988) noted that when compared to White and Latino male undergraduates, “among dating students in this sample, the highest percentages for partner’s use of physical force and consequences experienced as a result were for Black men” (p. 318). Although researchers did not survey both members of the couple, an examination of gender differences revealed that Black women reported using more violence against boyfriends than Black men reported using against their girlfriends (Clark et al., 1994; DeMaris, 1990).”
  • One form of female-perpetrated violence may be perceived as acceptable, “playful” aggression that is not taken seriously and therefore has few deleterious emotional or physical consequences. For example, some impoverished Black adolescent girls used violence in response to infidelity and others inflicted violence to evoke a reaction from their emotionally numb boyfriends or in frustration after their partners were unsupportive. However, the violence initiated by these teenage girls was viewed as overly “emotional” and ineffective. Rather than feeling threatened, perhaps because of the physical strength differential, the adolescent boys minimized the violence and, in some cases, described it as comical (Miller & White, 2003).
  • In contrast, a second form of female-perpetrated violence may be viewed as an assault, in which the male victim experienced some adverse consequence. For example, 13% of the Black college men surveyed by Rouse (1988) sustained a visible injury or required medical help after being assaulted by a girlfriend. Clearly, violence inflicted by women, even if it is meant to be “playful,” should not be excused and men’s victimization should not be minimized.”

Index 2 quotes from Carolyn M. West’sA Thin Line Between Love and Hate”? Black Men as Victims and Perpetrators of Dating Violence” in the Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, p. 240-243.

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13 thoughts on ““From Amadou Diallo to Mike Brown: Challenging the Institutionalized Profitization of Black Male Hatred in Law Enforcement, Media, and Extremist Black Feminism” by T. Hasan Johnson, Ph.D.

  1. I am a 16 year old black female and I have to say your essays have really opened my eyes more than ever before to the plight of black men. I would like to thank you for not dissing or dismissing black women in the process of explaining your side of the argument.

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